legend of native americans indians

legend of native americans indians

Redwood National Park Parcs d'État et national Redwood

Redwood National Park comprises a region of coastal mountains bordering the Pacific (to 930 m above sea level) north of San Francisco. It is covered with a magnificent forest of sequoia redwood trees, the tallest and most impressive trees in the world. The marine and land life are equally remarkable, in particular the sea lions, the bald eagle and the endangered California brown pelican.

The park was established specifically to protect these trees, because it is only here and in Oregon that they now survive. Descendants of the giant evergreens that grew during the age of the dinosaurs, redwoods thrived in moist temperate regions of the world. They take 400 years to mature and some of the survivors are more than 2,000 years old. Their thick, sapless bark protects them from fire, but landslides and wind can topple old trees. Cultural landscapes reflect American Indian history. The Indians used fallen redwood trees to build canoes and houses; commercial logging began during the gold rush era. Logging of redwoods continues and is debated by the timber industry and environmentalists. The trees stand as majestic reminders of the slow evolution of nature.

The area transcends two distinctive physiographic environments: the coastline, and the mountains of the Coast Range. The park's 55 km coastline consists of steep, rocky cliffs broken by rolling slopes and broad sandy beaches. Gently rounded summits contrast with steep slopes and deeply incised streams. Bedrock is primarily highly deformed Cretaceous deep water marine sandstones, siltstones and shales. Lesser amounts of chert, volcanic greenstones and metamorphic rocks occur as blocks within the sedimentary rocks.

The predominant vegetation type is coastal redwood forest. There are 15,800 ha of old-growth redwood, 20,800 ha are cut over and the balance comprises other vegetation types. The redwoods are surviving remnants of the group of trees that were once found throughout many of the moist temperate regions of the world, but are now confined to the wet regions on the west coast of North America. As slope and dryness increase, the forest is superseded by prairie vegetation.

There are 75 species of mammal. Freshwater marshes, ponds and streams provide valuable nesting and feeding areas for several species of migratory waterfowl. Several offshore rocks in the area are important nesting sites for seabirds. Threatened birds include the endangered brown pelican, southern bald eagle and American falcon.

Archaeological surveys, test excavations, research and consultations conducted over the past 20 years have resulted in the recording of 50 prehistoric archaeological sites, 19 historic sites and at least 21 places of significance to local Indian communities. The archaeological sites span 4,500 years and represent changing settlement and subsistence systems. Historic resources include examples of early trails, homestead and ranching, fishing, dairy, mining and logging industries, and military structure.

The redwood forests represent some 42% of the remaining old growth redwood stands, a small fragment of once extensive cover. Legal protection is total, but sport fishing is allowed. The principal National Park Service zoning classification comprises natural, historic and park development enclaves.

The parks' mosaic of habitats includes prairie/oak woodlands, mighty rivers and streams and 55 km of pristine Pacific coastlin

 

Parcs d'État et national Redwood

Région de montagnes longeant le Pacifique au nord de San Francisco, le parc national Redwood est couvert d'une magnifique forêt de séquoias à feuilles d’if – arbres les plus hauts et les plus impressionnants du monde. La faune marine et terrestre y est également remarquable, avec en particulier le lion de mer, l'aigle chauve et le pélican brun de Californie, une espèce menacée.

 

 

Valeur exceptionnelle

La principale caractéristique du parc est la forêt côtière de séquoias, vestige d’un groupe d’arbres qui existe depuis 160 millions d’années et qui peuplait jadis bon nombre de régions tempérées humides, mais qui reste maintenant confiné aux régions humides de la côte ouest d’Amérique du Nord. Le parc contient quelques-uns des arbres les plus grands et les plus vieux de la Terre. Une flore et une faune intertidales, marines et d’eau douce est également présente dans les deux milieux physiographiques distincts des montagnes côtières et du littoral qui comprennent les communautés de forêt ancienne et de cours d’eau.

Critères

(vii) Le Parc national Redwood couvre une région de montagnes côtières le long de l’océan Pacifique, à égale distance (560 kilomètres) entre San Francisco (Californie) et Portland (Oregon). Il abrite une magnifique forêt de « redwoods » (Sequoia sempervirens), l’espèce vivante la plus élevée en taille et l’un des arbres les plus impressionnants du monde. Plusieurs arbres parmi les plus grands du monde se trouvent sur le site.

(ix) Le Parc national Redwood conserve la plus grande et la dernière vieille forêt côtière de séquoias contiguë au monde dans son cadre forestier et côtier d’origine.



16/05/2012
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