legend of native americans indians

legend of native americans indians

MESA VERDE PARK Parc national de Mesa Verde

Among the American Indian civilizations recognized by ethnologists and prehistorians, that of the Anasazi Indians and of their distant descendants, the Pueblos of New Mexico and Arizona are indeed quite original, owing in part to the substantial rigours of their natural environment: the south-western part of Colorado with its mesas cut by deep canyons. On the high limestone and sandstone plateau, which in one place reaches an altitude of 2,620 m above sea level, the climate is semi-arid, being characterized by irregular precipitation and great differences between day and night temperature. The first signs of regular human occupation go back to the 6th century of the current era. They are principally located on the plateau where partially buried villages, consisting of silos and low dwellings, have existed since this period. Original handicrafts, in which the production of yucca fibre objects play a major role, was to remain characteristic of Anasazi civilization for seven centuries.

From roughly 750 to 1100 some highly specific features appeared in the human settlements of Mesa Verde. While the plateau villages were increasingly built in an L- or U-shaped layout, the valley villages grew larger. In rock shelters under the refuge of imposing overhanging cliffs, on the side of cuestas deeply lacerated by erosion, composite, both troglodytic and built villages were established having various functions: agricultural, handicrafts or religious - the first kivas (subterranean or buried structures of a subcircular layout) appeared during this period.

This civilization reached its apogee between 1100 and the end of the 13th century before suddenly disappearing. Impressive, multi-storey constructions (the best-known being 'Cliff Palace' and 'Long House', with its 181 rooms and 15 kivas) were erected under the shelter of the cliffs. They are demonstrative of surprising progress in building techniques and a very keen sense for use of space. At the same time, agrarian techniques were improved: irrigation, based on a network of reservoirs and dams, was used to offset the rigours of a climate largely hostile to the cultivation of cereals and starches, staples of the Anasazi diet. This 'golden age', facilitated by control of the natural environment, is further illustrated by the outstanding quality of the handicrafts. As the first explorers of Mesa Verde claimed on many an occasion, the wickerwork, weaving and especially ceramics were of astonishing quality.

Discovered in 1874, the rock-cut villages of Mesa Verde were pillaged by collectors (there was a very large pottery sale in 1889) before being studied and excavated by archaeologists. However, the protection of the site which came into effect in 1906 under the Federal Antiquities Act is one of the most effective and long-standing on the American continent.

 

Parc national de Mesa Verde

Dans l'extrême sud-ouest de l'État du Colorado, le plateau de Mesa Verde, qui atteint plus de 2 600 m d'altitude, abrite une énorme concentration d'habitats indiens ancestraux dans des « pueblos » construits du VIe au XIIe siècle. Les quelque 4 400 sites recensés comprennent des villages bâtis au sommet de la Mesa et des habitations aménagées sur les falaises, construites en pierre et pouvant comporter plus de 100 pièces.

 

Parc national de Mesa Verde

Valeur exceptionnelle

Le paysage de Mesa Verde dans le sud-ouest américain est considéré comme le site type de la culture préhistorique ancestrale Pueblo qui s’est développée pendant près de neuf cents ans, de 450 à 1300, sur ce plateau du sud-ouest du Colorado à plus de 2 600 mètres d’altitude. Il y a une grande concentration d’habitats spectaculaires d’Indiens Pueblos. Près de 600 ‘habitations rupestres’ ont été recensées dans le Parc national de Mesa Verde, y compris des édifices de plusieurs étages aussi célèbres que « Cliff Palace », « Balcony House » et « Square Tower House », en grès et en mortier de terre, et 4 100 autres sites archéologiques ont été mis au jour. Il y a régulièrement de nouvelles découvertes.

Critère (iii) Les sites archéologiques exceptionnels du paysage de Mesa Verde sont un témoignage éloquent des anciennes traditions culturelles des tribus amérindiennes. Ils représentent un lien graphique entre les modes de vie passé et présent des peuples Pueblos du sud-ouest américain.



17/05/2012
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